Dr. Torben Holvad is Economic Adviser at the European Railway Agency (France), senior research associate at the Transport Studies Unit (University of Oxford), research associate at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) and external associate professor at the Department of Transport (Danish Technical University). He obtained Economics degrees from Copenhagen University (MSc) and the European University Institute in Florence (MA and PhD). His main responsibilities at ERA are the economic analyses concerning the Agency’s activities including the development and monitoring of railway indicators; support to the operational units in the early assessment of projects and in the ex-ante impact assessment of recommendations and technical opinions. He has significant expertise in applied economic analysis with particular emphasis on regulation of the transport sector, policy appraisal and evaluation with respect to promotion of sustainability and regional economic development. He has published numerous papers as journal articles, book chapters and international conference proceedings covering his research interests particularly on quantitative and qualitative methods and their empirical applications such as efficiency and productivity measurement (benchmarking), cost-benefit analysis and multicriteria analysis.